O rodbinskom nazivlju u turskom i hrvatskom jeziku

Ekrem Čaušević

Sažetak

Promjene u sustavu rodbinskoga nazivlja u hrvatskome standardnom jeziku, u kojemu su izvorni nazivi svak, svastika, djever, zaova, šurjak, pašanac i jetrva gotovo potisnuti njemačkim posuđenicama šogor i šogorica, a semantičko polje naziva zet (zet : šogor) zbog interferencije s posuđenicom šogor reducirano na značenje “kćerin muž u odnosu na njezine roditelje”, otežavaju studentima turskoga jezika usvajanje leksika kojim se označava nekrvno srodstvo. U turskome jeziku nazivlje za oznaku srodstva, pa tako i onoga po bračnoj vezi, izrazito je diferencirano zato što izvorni govornici toga jezika pridaju veliko značenje društvenim i rodbinskim vezama. Poteškoće u usvajanju rodbinskoga nazivlja u turskome javljaju se i zbog toga što se model na kojemu se temelji sustav rodbinskih naziva umnogome razlikuje od hrvatskoga. Turski je naime sačuvao kognatski model koji u obitelji naglašava obje linije srodstva – i po ocu, i po majci, pa stoga taj jezik ima posebne nazive za veze prema djedu, baki i tetkama ne samo s očeve nego i s majčine strane. Hrvatski je tu distinkciju sačuvao samo u nazivima za strica i ujaka; nju, dakako, pravi i turski jezik. Kontrastivno je relevantno napomenuti i to da turski razlikuje najbliže krvne srodnike po izravnoj silaznoj liniji: starijega i mlađeg brata, odnosno stariju i mlađu sestru. Što se pak spola tiče, on se u turskome dodatno eksplicira leksemima erkek (muško) i kız (žensko) u slučajevima kad izvornim govornicima prirodni spol nije samorazumljiv, kao kod riječi torun “unuk i unuka”. Zanimljivo je napomenuti da se kod naziva za starijega brata (ağabey) i sestru (abla) dodatno ne eksplicira spol, dok je za mlađega brata i sestru (kardeş) to nužno ako izvorni govornik posebno želi naglasiti misli li na brata ili sestru.

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Kinship terms in Turkish and Croatian

Significant changes have occurred in the system of kinship terminology in the Croatian standard language over the past fifty years. The traditional terms svak ‘sister’s husband’, svastika ‘wife’s sister’, djever ‘husband’s brother’, zaova ‘husband’s sister’, šurjak ‘wife’s brother’, pašanac ‘husband of second sister in relation to husband of first sister’, and jetrva ‘wife of husband’s brother’ have been almost completely replaced by the German loanwords šogor ‘brother-in-law’ and šogorica ‘sister-in-law’. In addition, the semantic field of the term zet (zet : šogor) has, due to interference with the loan-word šogor, been reduced to the meaning ‘daughter’s husband in relation to her parents’. As a result, it has become more difficult for Croatian students of Turkish to learn the vocabulary relating to non-blood relationships. In the Turkish language, terms denoting kinship, including kinship through marriage, are extremely specific because native speakers of the language place great importance on social and kinship relations. It is also difficult for Croatian-speaking students to learn the Turkish terms because the two languages’ systems of kinship terms are very different. Turkish has retained the cognate model, which stresses both lines of relations – via the father and via the mother, and so Turkish has special terms for relations to the gr andfather, the grandmother, and aunts not only on the father’s side, but on the mother’s side as well. Croatian has retained this distinction only in the words stric ‘father’s brother’ and ujak ‘mother’s brother’; Turkish, of course, makes this distinction as well. For contrastive purposes, it is also relevent to mention that in Turkish one can differentiate between siblings in terms of their age: older and younger brother; older and younger sister. In addition, in Turkish, sex can be additionally stressed with the lexemes erkek ‘male’ and kız ‘female’ in cases when the referent’s natural sex is not obvious to the speakers, as is the case with the word torun ‘grandchild’. It is interesting to note that it is not necessary to specify sex with the word for ‘older brother’ (ağabey), but that it is necessary with the word meaning ‘younger brother/sister’ (kardeş) if the speaker wants to stress whether he is talking about a brother or sister. 

Ključne riječi

rodbinsko nazivlje; hrvatski jezik; turski jezik; kinship terms; Turkish; Croatian

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