Ćefileme sarajevskih kršćana iz 1788. godine

Hamdija Kreševljaković

Sažetak

Ćefilema je bila jedna od neophodnih mjera turske sudsko-administrativne službe za održavanje reda i mira u nesigurno doba. Ova preventivna mjera sastojala se u tome što bi po naredbi guvernera pokrajine (vezira) sumnjivi stanovnici jedne varoši, sela ili kraja morali solidarno jamčiti jedan za drugoga. Shodno potrebi vezir bi izdao naredbu (bujuruldiju) svome povjereniku (muteselimu), ili, u odsutnosti ovoga kadiji, da uzme ćefilemu. Muteselim ili kadija bi u bilježnicu (defter) upisao sve one koji su obavezni po ćefilemi, naznačavajući ko jamči za navedenu osobu. Ovom mjerom ponekad je uspijevalo vlastima da spriječe pobune ili nemire, a ponekad je ćef:tlema uzirnana nakon ugušenog nemira. Popis koji se ovom prilikom sastavljao zvao se ,,kef:tleme defter".

Pod ćeftlemu su se obično uzimali muški stanovnici iznad 19 godina. Ponekad se pod ćef:tlemu uzimalo svo stanovništvo jednog grada ili kraja, ponekad opet samo pripadnici jednog staleža, na pr. zanatlije, ili pripadnici samo jedne konfesije. Jamčilo se u grupama od dvije, tri ili više osoba. U jednoj ćefilemi iz 1848. godine ima grupa od 150, 160, pa i od 170 osoba. Sve dosad poznate ćefileme uzimane su od muslimana ili od stanovnika svih konfesija, dok mi je poznata samo jedna ćefilema uzeta samo od kršćana (pravoslavnih i katolika).

Ćefileme je sastavljao muteselim u tri primjerka: jedan primjerak za vezira, drugi za kadiju koji je morao da ga unese u "sidžil", a treći je ostajao kod muteselima. Uz ,,keflleme defter" slata je i pismena zakletva u kojoj su navedene garancije koje oni preuzimaju na sebe.

U XVIII stoljeću zenička nahija se nalazila stalno pod ćefilemom. "Kefileme defter" se obnavljao svakih osam do deset godina. Ne zna se kada je ta praksa zavedena u ovoj nahiji. Takvi primjeri su nepoznati drugdje, ali to, vjerovatno, nije bio usamljen slučaj.

Onaj koji nije mogao naći jamca bivao je protjeran sa teritorije na kojoj se uzimala ćefilema. Dokumenti koji su nam poznati govore da se ćefilema uzimala u Bosni počevši od sredine XVI stoljeća do 1848. godine kada je izbila revolucija u Austriji.

Godine 1788. uzeta je ćefilema sarajevskih kršćana, dakle, za vrijeme rata između Austrije i Turske. Ovaj popis sadrži 625 osoba: 26 žena i 599 muškaraca od čega je 25 bilo odsutno iz Sarajeva. Stanovali su u 12 kvartova (mahala) i tri hana. Ovaj popis nam govori o učešću kršćana u privrednom životu Sarajeva. Po staležima, bilo je 330 obrtnika i trgovaca i 98 sluga kod obrtnika i zanatlija. Za 136 se ne spominje zanimanje, što ne znači da ga nisu imali.

Uz spis je pridodata proklamacija na turskom jeziku koju je Austrija uputila stanovništvu Bosne i Hercegovine opominjući ga da ne uzima učešća u otporu i prijeteći onima koji se pobune.

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Kefileme of the Christians of Sarajevo from 1788

Keftleme was a nacessary measure of the Turskih judical-administrative service for maintenance of peace and order in times of trouble. This prevention measure was taken upon Vezier's order that all suspicious inhabitants of a town, village or region should guarantee for one another. The Vezier would issue an order (bujuruldija) to his representative (muteselim) or, if he was absent, to the quadi, to take the keftleme. The muteselim or the quadi would take the record ( defter) of all the men obliged according to the keftleme, noting who was guaranteeing for whom. This measure sometimes helped the authorities to prevent riots and rebellions. Sometimes the kefileme was taken after crushed riots. The list made on this occasion was called the "keftleme defter".

The kefileme usually included male inhabitants more than 19 years old. Sometimes it included all the inhabitants of a town or region and sometimes only those belonging to a profession, e.g. tradesmen, or to a single confession. People guaranteed for one another in groups of two, three, or more. In a kefileme from 1848 there are groups of 150, 160 and even 170 people. All the kefllemes known so far were taken among Moslems or among inhabitants of all confessions. I know of only one keftleme taken exclusively among Christians (Ortodox and Catholics).

The keftleme was written by the muteselim in three copies: one for the Vezi er, one for the quadi so that he could put it in the "sidžil", and one for the muteselim. The "Keftleme defter" was always accompanied by a written oath listing all the guaranties.

In the 18th e. the nahija (district) of Zenica was all the time under the kefileme. The "Keftleme defter" was renewed every eight or ten years. The date of the introduction of this measure is not known. Although we do not know of other similar examples this was probably not an exception.

Those who could not fmd a guarantor were expelled from the territory where kefileme was taken. The documents that we know tell us that the kefileme in Bosnia started in the middle of the 16th e. and was used tilll848 when the revolution in Austria broke out.

In 1788 a kef.tleme was taken - it means during the war between Austria and Turkey. This list comprises 625 people: 26 women and 599 men (25 of them were absent from Sarajevo). They inhabited 12 quarters (mahalas) and three inns. This list tells us of the part that Christians took in the economic life of Sarajevo. There were 330 craftsmen and tradesmen and 98 servants. The profession of 136 men is not mentioned which does not mean that they did not have one.

This paper also comprises the proclamation originally written in Turkish and addressed by Austria to the population of Bosnia and Herzegovina warning it not to take part in resistance and threatening those who should try to rebel.

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