Janičari u svjetlu Tuzlanskog sidžila 1644-1646. godine

Nihad Dostović

Sažetak

Ovaj rad daje kraću analizu pojedinih podataka o janičarima u Tuzlanskom kraju koji su upisani u dokumente Tuzlanskog sidžila. Sidžil je iz 1054-55/1644-46. godine i čuva se u Gazi Husrev-begovoj biblioteci u Sarajevu kao dio ostavine Osman Asaf-ef. Sokolovića. Mnogi kraći i duži upisi u Sidžilu koji se tiču janičara daju bolji uvid u historiju janičara Tuzlanskog kraja a i Osmanske države na tim područjima. U samom Tuzlanskom sidžilu janičari su upisani u velikom broju dokumenata bilo kao sami akteri nekog čina ili samo kao svjedoci, što govori o njihovoj brojnosti i prisutnosti u svim sferama života. Ono što je posebno interesantno jeste da dosta janičara u Tuzlanskom sidžilu jasno navodi svoje nemuslimansko porijeklo, neki čak navode svoje pretke i par generacija unazad, čime se jasno opovrgava tvrdnja balkanskih histriografija da je prelazak na islam značilo i smrt sjećanja. Pored toga autor na osnovu podatka u širi kontekst stavlja i problem janičarskog nasilja koje je bilo odraz nezadovoljstva prema tadašnjoj vlasti raznih grupa, a ne samo janičara, i očito se vidi da to nasilje nije bilo usmjereno prema određenim vjerskim ili etničkim zajednicama pod zaštitom Osmanske države. S obzirom da je veliki broj upisa u kojima se spominju janičari i koje je je nemoguće obraditi sve u jednom radu, ovaj rad je jedan mali doprinos još uvijek u potpunosti nerasvijetljenoj historiji janičara kako na području Bosne i Hercegovine tako i na ostalim područjima na kojima su vladali Osmanlije.

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Janissaries in the light of the Sidjillof Tuzla of 1054-55/1644-46

This paper gives a shorter analysis of some data on janissaries in the region of Tuzla recorded as documents of fragmentary Sicill of Tuzla. These are preserved in the Tuzla Sharia court record of 1054-55/1644-46 in the Gazi Husrev Bey Library in Sarajevo, as a part of the bequest of Osman Asaf-ef. Sokolović. Many of the records, be it shorter or longer ones, give better insight into history of janissaries in region of Tuzla region during the Ottoman rule. There are numerous records of janissaries in the Sicill, and in some they are recorded as direct participants of an act, while in some they are recorded as witnesses of an act. Many records in which janissaries are mentioned indeed show that they were omnipresent in all spheres of life in the Tuzla region. What particularly is interesting is the fact that many janissaries are recorded with non-Muslim names of their fathers, and furthermore some of them count names of their non-Muslim ancestors far back. This clearly confutes theories of some Balkan nationalists that conversion to Islam meant the death of remembering of the past. Added to this, author in wider context puts janissary violence which actually was reflection of discontent of many groups in the society and was directed against government, and it is clear that this violence was not directed primarily against some ethno-religious groups protected by the Ottoman State. The paper is a small contribution to still clearly not known history of janissaries in Bosnia, but also to that of the other parts where Ottomans ruled.

Ključne riječi

janičari; devširma; tvrđavske posade; Poturi; Kadiluk Obiju Tuzla (Memlehateyn); ḳul; gulâm; baša (beşe); serdār; râcil; vojno-radna migracija; janičarsko nasilje; janissaries; desvshirme; fortress garrison; Potur; Court of Memlehateyn; ḳul; gulâm; beşe

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