Bošnjački pjesnik Zekerijja Sukkerī i njegova epigrafika

Amina Šiljak-Jesenković

Sažetak

O Bošnjačkom pjesnifar Zekerijjau Sukkeriji je do sada bilo poznato veoma malo podataka, prvenstveno stoga što se sve do pojave GOlpinarlijeva Kataloga nije znalo gdje se nalazi njegov Divan, u cilju pojašnjavanja njegove biografije, pokušali smo u ovom radu obraditi i na bosanki jezik prevesti njegove tarihe od prvog datiranog 1072. godinom pa do pjesnikova dolaska u Istanbul 1082. godine.

U jedinom do danas poznatom sačuvanom kodeksu u kom se nalazi Sukkerijin Divan sačuvana su ukupno 22 tardra, od kojih je 20 napisano na turskom jeziku, a 2 na perzijskom, 17 tariha je nastalo prije pjesnikova dolaska i nastanjivanja u Istanbulu, dok je 5 tariha nastalo po njegovom dolasku u Istanbul. Tematsfa ih možemo klasificirati na tarihe historijskilr dogadaja, tarihe izgradnje pojedinih objekata, tarilre puštanja, brade, jedan tarih stradanja Sarajeva u požaru 1073. godine, te tarihe smrti nekohcئe Sukkerij-inih suvremenika.

Na osnovu tariha koje je posvetio svojim savremenicima i zemljacima poput Mustafe Katibije Čelebije, kaligrafa i pjesnika, sarajevskog muftije i šejha Ibrahima Bistrigije, mujezina Begove džamije, potom stradanja sarajevske čaršije u požaru, tariha posvećenog bosankom namjesniku i nekih drugih, slobodni smo iznijeti pretpostavku daje u to vrijeme autor boravio u domovini, preciznije u Sarajevu. Iz Sukkerijinih tariha saznajemo i dva zanimljiva podatka. Prvi je o stradanju Sarajeva u požaru, o kojem kod prethodnih istraživača nismo imali podataka. Naime, radi se o požaru koji je uništio sarajevsku čaršiju 1073 (1662/63), a stihovi kojima ovaj autor opisuje događaj dokaz su da je bio svjedokom stradanja njegovoga grada u “vatri usuda Božjega”. Drugi zanimljiv podatak je izveden iz tariha o izgradnji mehkeme iz 1080 (1669/70) godine, a za koji smo na osnovu prethodnih tariha i identifikacije pojedinih ličnosti iskazali pretpostavku da se najvjerojatnije radi o izgradnji sarajevske mehkeme, koja nam do sada nije bila poznata.

Iako predmetom našeg istraživanja u ovom radu nije bila estetika i poetika Sukkerijinih stihova (što ostavljamo za dalja istraživanja, posebice na uzorcima njegovog obimnog opusa gazela), samo u vidu kratkih napomena iznijećemo nekolika zaključka:

a) Stihovi Sukkerijinih tariha u potpunosti zadovoljavaju knjiške norme aruz metrike;

b) Tarihi koji po prirodi pjesme sa ciljem iskazivanja određenoga datuma imaju više dokumentarni negoli umjetnički karakter, kod Sukkerij-e zadovoljavaju i ovu normu stihovanog, estetski profiliranog, lirskog kazivanja povijesnog događaja;

c) Jezik koji u svojim tarihima koristi Sukkerija u potpunosti odgovara jeziku poezije njegovih suvremenika;

d) Metafore koje su posebno izražene nizom lirskih slika u pjesmama o izgradnji kule u posjedu dva brata iz 1073. i dvora (ili dvorca) iz 1079. svjedoče o visokoj izobraženosti ovog autora, jer on, spominjući Manija, Nigaristan, Havemak, Irem itd. u svojim stihovima pokazuje da poznaje istočnu civilizaciju, koristeći simbole onako kako su ih koristili i njegovi mnogo slavniji prethodnici i suvremenici. Uz to, uzme li se u obzir i naša pretpostavka koju smo izveli na osnovu pojedinih tariha da je Sukkerija u vrijeme njihova nastajanja živio u Sarajevu, imamo još jednu potvrdu da je ovaj pjesnik već u svojoj matici stekao visoko opće obrazovanje;

e) Tarihe smrti pojedinih ličnosti posebno karakterizira emotivni naboj sa kojim Sukkerija pristupa njihovom pisanju: ovdje posebno možemo istaći tarih smrti Mustafe Čelebije, tarih smrti Muhammeda (1073-1662/63), te tarih smrti sina Bilalova, sluge hajrata Husrev-begovih (1073-1662/63), a za njima po emotivnom naboju iskazanom brojnim metaforama ne zaostaje ni tarih smrti osobe čije ime autor ne navodi, iz 1079 (1668/69);

f) Tarihe koji tretiraju povijesne događaje karakterizira oduševljenje vojnim uspjesima, toliko da pjesnik katkada doseže dotle da od heroja o kojemu pjeva stvara mitski lik ratnika kakvog susrećemo u epici.

Na koncu, možemo biti slobodni u iskazivanju tvrdnje da pred sobom imamo još jednog autora čijim će se širim predstavljanjem otvoriti golem prostor za razaznavanje bošnjačkog kulturnog bića i koji će svakako nakon proteklih stoljeća u kojima je bio zapostavljen time steći svoje zasluženo mjesto u književnoj baštini Bošnjaka, na ponos njihovoj umnosti.

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Bosniac poet Zekerijja Sukkeri and his epigraphic

Very little data are known so far on the Bosniac poet Zekerijja Sukkeri, primarily because, until publishing of the Goelpinarly’s Catalogue it was unknown where his Divan (Collection of poetry in qualitatttiv aruz metrics) was. In the view to clarifying his biography, in this article, we tried to develop and translate into the Bosnian language his tarihs (epigrams) starting from the first one dated 1072, to the poet’s arrival to Istanbul in 1082.

In a codex which has been known and preserved so far, in which Sukkerija’s Divan was kept, 22 tarihs were preserved in total, 20 of which were written in the Turkish language, and 2 in the Persian one, 17were created prior to the poet’s arrival and settlement in Istambul, while 5 tarihs v/ere created after he arrived to Istambul. Thematically, they could be classified into tarihs on the historical events, tarihs on construction of particular objects, tarihs on growing a beard, a tarih on devastation of Sarajevo in the fire, in 1073, and tarih on the death of several Sukkrija’s contemporaries.

On the basis of the tarihs dedicated to his contemporaries and country fellows such as Mustafa Katibija Chelebija, a calligrapher and a poet, Sarajevo muftija and šeih Ibrahim Bistrigija, muezzin in the Bey’s mosque, then devastation of the Sarajevo čaršija (bazaar) in the fire, than tarih dedicated to the Bosnian govemor and some others, we are free to present a presumption that the author happen to stay in his homeland, more precisely, in Sarajevo. From Sukkrija’s tarihs, we also learn about the two interesting data: the first is on devastation of Sarajevo in the fire, on which event we did not find data with the previous research workers; namely, the fire that devastated Sarajevo čaršija (bazaar) in 1073 (1662/63.) was in question, and the rhymes by which the author đescribed the event prove that he was the witness of the calamity of his city in ’the fire of God’s doom". The second interesting data has been derived from the tarih on building of the mehkema (court building) from 1080 (1669/70), and for which, on the basis of previous tarihs and identifications of particular personalities, we proved a presumption that the most probably the building of Sarajevo mehkeme was in question, which was so far unknown.

Although, in this article, the esthetics and poetics of Sukkerija"s rhymes were not the subject of these researches (we leave that to further researches, particularly on the samples of his comprehensive opus gazels), we shall hereby present a few conclusions in the form of short notes only:

a) the rhymes of Sukkerija’s tarihs fully satisfy literary norms of aruz metrics,

b) with Sukkerij a, the tarihs, which byits nature of poem withthe view to explaining a certain date, are of rather documentary than artistic character, also satisfy this norm of rhyme, esthetically profiled, lyrical narration of the historical event,

c) the language that Sukkerija uses in his tarihs fully corresponds to the language of his contemporaries,

d) metaphors, which are particularly expressed through a range of pictures in the poems on building of the tower owned by two brothers from 1073, and the palače (or palaces) from 1079, testify on highly educated author, because mentioning Mani, Nigaristan, Havemak, Irem etc. in his rhymes is a proof of his knowledge on Eastem civilization, use of the symbols in the way his more famous predecessors and contemporaries did it. In addition, if our presumption is taken into consideration, which we derived on the basis of particular tarihs which read that Sukkerija used to live in Sarajevo just at the time of creating of those tarihs, we have one more confirmation that this poet acquiređ high level of education already in his home town.

e) The tarihs on death of some individuals specially characterized by emotional charge by which Sukkerija begins his writing: here, we can emphasize the tarih on death of Mustafa Čelebija, tarih on the death of Muhamed (1073 - 1662/63), and tarih on the death of Bilal’s son, servant of Husref-bey’s hajrat (legacy) (1073 1662/63), and as for emotional charge expressed in numerous metaphors, the tarih from 1079 (1668/69) on death of a person whose name the author does not mention is not less significant.

f) the rnain characteristic of the tarihs which are dealing with historical events is excitement by the military successes, which is sometimes exalting with the poet to such extant that the hero he praises in his verses he makes a mythie personage of the wanior, like those one finds in the epics.

Finally, we would be free to express our assertion, that, before us, we have one moie authoi by whose presentation an enormous space of understanding of Bosniac cultural being will be opened, and, who, surely, after the centuries that went by, and during which he was neglected, would acquire deserved place in the Hterary heritage of the Bosniacs and be a priđe of their wisdom.

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