O Hamzevijama i njihovom učenju

Cahit Telci

Sažetak

Sunijsko učenje islama kojem je pripadala većina muslimanskog naroda u Osmanskoj državi bilo je i službena, državna ideologija. Ponekad su se pojavljivale grupe i pojedinci koji nisu prihvatili ovakvo učenje i pod utjecajem sufijske tradicije različito tumačili ortodoksni sunizam. Medutim, država se veoma strogo borila protiv svih onih koji su gajili ovakve ideje i nastojala je suz biti njihov utjecaj. 0 pojavama takvih grupa i pojedinaca svjedoči bogata arhivska grada na osnovu koje možemo pratiti i prostore i vrijeme u kojima se javljaju ovakve gruipe, odrediti njihovu društvenu uslovljenost, sagledati optužbe pod kojima su osuđivani te iznijeti pretpostavke o osudi hereze kao ideološkog ili političkog pokreta.

Učenik Husameddina Ankaravija Hamza Bali poslije smrti svoga šejha odlazi na službu u Bosnu, počinje voditi narod i kada se oko njega počinje okup- ljati više svijeta, tamošnja ulema biva uznemirena zbog utjecaja kakvog je Hamza Bali zadobio u narodu, te na njihove u Istanbul upućene optažbe koje se od- nose na šejh Hamzu, on biva pozvan u prijestolnicu, gdje mu se sudi. Na osnovu fetve šejhulislama Ebussuud efendija, koju on izriče oslanjajući se na fetvu šejhulislama Ibn Kemala, Hamza Bali 969 H. (1561-62) biva osuden na smrt.

Arhivska grada čije tekstove djelimično predstavljamo u ovom radu pokazuje da njegovi sljedbenici koji se spominju kao hamzevije, nastavljaju sa svojim djelovanjem i nakon Stoje Hamza Bali ubijen, u Muhiinme defterima Vladinog osmanskog arhiva u Turskoj (Başbakanlık OsmanlI Arşivi) ima sudskih odluka koje se odnose na hamzevije iz 1582. godine, a i Amiki Mehmed 1614. godine piše risalir (raspravu 0 hamzevijama) u kojoj se ophižbe upućene hamzevijama i njihovoj herezi podudaraju sa onima koje se nalaze u sudskim dokumentima.

Ovaj rad u kojem se donose četiri nova izvora, pored već objavljenih radova ranijih autora, predstavlja još jedan korak u rasvjetljavanju učenja hamzevija, potvrđuje njihovo djelovanje i nakon smrti utemeljitelja ovoga reda i odnos države prema ovakvim pokretima.

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On the Hamzevis and their teachings

Sunnah teaching of Islam, which was followed by the majority ofthe Muslim people in the Ottoman State, was the State ideology. Occasionally, there appeared groups and individuals who did not accept such a teaching, and influenced by the sufi tradition interpreted orthodox sunnism differently. But, the State very severely fought against ali those who cherished such ideas and tried to limit their influence. Existence of such groups and individuals is wit- nessed by rich archives documents on the basis ofwhich we can trace the area where and the time when such groups appeared, the charges under which they were sentenced, i.e. the notion ofheresy as understood at the time.

Husameddin Ankaravi’s disciple, Hamza Bali, after his sheikh’s death, leaves for Bosnia to serve and there he started leading the people. At the moment when more people gathered around him, the ulama there got upset by the influence that Hamza Bali had among the people, so that after their charges against the sheikh Hamza directed to Istanbul, he was called back to the capi- tal, where he was tried. Under the fetwa of Sheikh ul Islam Ebussuud Effendi, which he issued relying on the febva issued by Sheikh ul Islam Ibn Kamal, .Hamza Bali was sentenced to deatli in 969 H. (1561-62 A.D.).

His followers referred to as the Hamzevis continued their activities even after Hamza Bali had been executed. In the Muhimme defters (registers) ofthe Ottoman Government's Archives in Turkey (Başbakanlık OsmanlI Arşivi), there are decisions relating to the Hamzevis ftom 1582; also, Amiki Mehmed in 1614 wrote a risala (a treatise on the Hamzevis) in which the charges against the Hamzevis and their heresy are identical with those found in the court docu- ments.

This paper, which presents four new sources, along with the ones published earlier by other authors, is a step forward in understanding the teaching ofthe Hamzevis; it confirms their activities and the death of this order’s foun- der, as well as the attihrde ofthe State toward such movements.

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