Bosanski franjevci i njihovi predstavnici na osmanskoj Porti

Vjeran Kursar

Sažetak

Dobivanje fermana i ostalih isprava koje su utvrđivale prava i povlastice bosanskih katolika, iziskivali su od franjevaca dosta financijskih sredstava, ali i diplomatske vještine u komunikaciji sa nižim lokalnim vlastima, bosanskim vezirom, kao i samom Portom. Pritom franjevci u odnosima sa lokalnim vlastima djeluju uglavnom samostalno, dok u odnosima sa višim instancama većinom traže posredovanje svjetovnjaka, od domaćih trgovaca sa vezama u Istanbulu, do diplomatskih predstavnika katoličkih država na Porti. Najčešće se radilo o poslanicima država kojima je Porta priznavala pravo duhovnog skrbništva nad osmanskim katolicima, poput Francuske, Austrije, i naravno, Svete Stolice. Posebnu pomoć bosanskim franjevcima pružala je Dubrovačka Republika, koja je, kao osmanski vazal i sjedište ispostave rimske Svete kongregacije za propagandu vjere za Balkan od 1623., imala veliki upliv na položaj katoličanstva u europskom dijelu Osmanskog Carstva. Sredinom 19. stoljeća prilike su se iz temelja izmijenile pod utjecajem reformi Tanzimata i modernizacije. Proglašena je pravna jednakost svih građana Osmanskog Carstva bez ozbira na vjersku pripadnost, a nemuslimanskim vjerskim zajednicama je po prvi puta proklamativno zajamčena puna sloboda djelovanja. U novonastalim okolnostima vodstvo franjevačke provincije Bosne Srebrene odlučilo je utemeljiti stalno predstavništvo u osmanskoj prijestolnici Istanbulu. 1845. godine zalaganjem fra Filipa Pašalića (1806-1861) u selu poljskih emigranata Adamköyu (danas Polonezköy), udaljenom tridesetak kilometara od Istanbula, bosanski franjevci stječu svoje prvo uporište. Sedam godina kasnije franjevci kupuju crkvu Sv. Jurja sa samostanskom zgradom na Galati Istanbulu, i tu ostaju sve do 1882. godine, kada, uslijed prilika nastalih austro-ugarskom okupacijom Bosne i Hercegovine, nestaje potreba za franjevačkim predstavništvom u osmanskoj prijestolnici.

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Bosnian Franciscans and their representatives at the Ottoman Porte

In order to acquire fermans and other documents that defined the rights and privileges of Bosnian Catholics, the Franciscans not only needed considerable financial funds but also required diplomatic skills to deal with lower local authorities, the Bosnian vezir, and in some situations, the Porte as well. Whilst undertaking negotiations, the Franciscans usually acted independently in dealings with local authorities. However when communicating with higher authorities they often involved laymen throughout the mediation process, be they local traders with connections in Istanbul, to diplomatic representatives from Catholic states at the Porte. Most often the agents engaged, were representatives of states which had right of spiritual patronage over Ottoman Catholics, recognized by the Porte – France, Austria and the Holy See. A special role was played by an Ottoman vassal and the centre of the Roman Holy Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith for the Balkans since 1623 – the Republic of Dubrovnik (Ragusa), which had vast influence on the state of Catholicism in the European part of the Ottoman Empire. In the mid-19th century, during the age of Tanzimat reforms and modernization, the situation changed drastically. One of the measures introduced brought equality to all citizens of the Ottoman Empire before the law, without distinction of faith. Accordingly, for the first time, non-Muslim communities were granted full freedom of action. Under these new circumstances, the leadership of the Franciscan Province of Bosna Srebrena (Bosna Argentina), made a decision to establish a permanent representative mission in the Ottoman capital Istanbul. In 1845, as a result of efforts of Fr. Filip Pašalić (1806-1861), Bosnian Franciscans acquired their first base in a village of Polish emigrants, Adamköy (today’s Polonezköy), some 30 km away from Istanbul. Seven years later, the Franciscans bought the Church of St. George with a monastery building in the Galata quarter of Istanbul. They retained the mission in Istanbul until 1882, when, following the Austro-Hungarian occupation of Bosnia-Herzegovina, a need for a representative in the Ottoman capital ceased to exist.

Ključne riječi

povijest; Osmansko Carstvo; 19. st.; bosanski franjevci; Porta; diplomacija; history; Ottoman Empire; 19th century; Bosnian Franciscans; Porte; diplomacy

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