Izgradnja Careve džamije u Foči i njen značaj u urbanom razvoju grada

Muamer Hodžić

Sažetak

Na plodnom kotlinskom prostoru Gornjeg Podrinja, gdje se rijeka Ćehotina ulijeva u Drinu, razvilo se naselje Foča. Godine 1465. to naselje dolazi pod osmansku vlast, a januara 1470. postaje sjedište novoosnovanog Hercegovačkog sandžaka. Jedan od strateških ciljeva osmanske vlasti bilo je izgrađivanje novih i dalja urbanizacija zatečenih naselja. Urbani nukleus oko kojeg se formirala buduća mahala ili privredni kvart bila je džamija. Zavisno od potrebe, džamije su gradili z načajni pojedinci ili država, odnosno sultan. Džamije koje su nominalno nosile sultansko ime bile su finansirane iz državne blagajne ili iz vakufa koje je osnovala država. Gradnja sultan Bajezidove džamije imala je za cilj unapređenje urbanog razvoja Foče kao osmanskog gradskog središta. Kako bi ta džamija mogla nesmetano funkcionirati, a njeni službenici obavljati redovne dužnosti, država je osigurala prihode u vidu vakufa. Na samom početku XVI stoljeća dovršena je gradnja Careve džamije i Foča je, u formalnom smislu, stekla uvjete da bude promovirana u status kasabe.

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Construction of the Emperor Mosque in Focha and its importance in the urban development of city

The settlement of Focha developed in the fertile valley basin area of the Upper Drina valley where the river Ćehotina joins the river Drina. Focha fell under the Ottoman rule 1465. In January 1470 Focha became the seat of the newly established Sanjak of Herzegovina. One of the strategic goals of the Ottomans was building new and further urbanization of the existing settlements. The urban nucleus for the future settlements or commercial district was the mosque. Mosques were built according to the needs, by honorable individuals or states, or even sultan. Mosques that nominally carried sultan’s name were financed from the state’s treasury or from the waqf, which was founded for the purpose of the mosques. Construction of Sultan Bajezid mosque aimed at improving urban development of Focha as the Ottoman city center. For the mosque to operate properly, so its employees could perform regular duties, the state provided it with income in the form of waqf. At the beginning of the 16th century, the construction of the Emperor Mosque was completed and Focha formally fulfilled conditions to be promoted to the status of ottoman kasaba.

Ključne riječi

Foča; Careva džamija; sultanska džamija; vakuf; urbanizacija; osmanski grad; Focha; Sultan Mosque; Emperor Mosque; waqf; urbanization; Ottoman city

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