Poetika klasične književnosti na orijentalno-islamskim jezicima: musammat forme kao kohezivni faktor

Esad Duraković

Sažetak

U klasičnoj književnosti na orijentalno-islamskim jezicima (arapski, perzijski i turski) njegovana je jedna grupa pjesničkih formi poznatih pod zajedničkim nazivom musammat. Sa stanovišta poetike, ove forme su zanimljive prvenstveno zbog toga što su relativno velikom produkcijom i ugledom koji su imale u književnoj tradiciji doprinosile, u velikoj mjeri, jedinstvu poetičkog sistema klasične književnosti iako se ona stvarala u tri jezika. Ova činjenica upućuje na to da je uputno klasičnu književnost proučavati kao jedan sistem, da su etnocentrični pristupi klasičnoj književnosti izvedeni naknadno, te da su nepodesni stvarnom “karakteru” te književnosti. Musammat forme snažno kontinuiraju književnu tradiciju na orijentalno-islamskim jezicima, kao njen moćan kohezivni faktor: poetički konstituenti ovih formi prepoznatljivi su od antičke arabljanske kaside do one u osmanskom jeziku u kome su se najviše i stvarale musammat forme. Sa stanovišta poetike, također je zanimljivo da je u musammat formama kulminirala naklonjenost ove književnosti općenito formi koja je, tradicijski, bila prioritetna u odnosu na sadržaj. Štaviše, musammat forme su otišle tako daleko u preferiranju forme da je pjesništvu inspiracijom postala sama forma, a ne bilo koji sadržaj (na primjer, u formama tahmis, nazira, mesnevija i dr.). U krajnjim konsekvencijama, forma postaje junak tradicije, a odnos između formi i sadržaja toliko je slobodan da bilo koji sadržaj može biti izražen u bilo kojoj formi. Na taj način se književna tradicija predstavlja kao dominantno lirična, i to dvostruko. Na jednoj strani, njome dominiraju lirske poetske vrste, a na drugoj strani – izvanredno dinamičan odnos formi među sobom čini cijelu tradiciju dinamičnom i liričnom u smislu potpunog prepuštanja dražima forme, orijentalski bezbrižnom izlasku subjekta u svijet formi. Ovakav poetološki pristup klasičnoj književnosti, odnosno musammat formama kao jednoj od njenih dominanti, pokazuje kako se ta književnost ne može smatrati epigonskom, iako se takvom učini mnogima na prvi pogled, već je ona ispoljavala dinamičnost na specifičan način koji često izmiče književnohistorijskim studijama, ali je evidentan u poetološkim pristupima.

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In oriental-islamic languages: the musammat form as a cohesive factor

In classical literature written in what is usually referred to as “Oriental-Islamic languages” (namely, Arabic, Persian, and Turkish) a conglomeration of poetic forms under the collective name of musammat was cultivated over the course of many centuries. From the viewpoint of poetics, these forms arouse interest primarily due to the fact that, because of the high production level and esteem they commanded in literary tradition, they largely contributed towards the unity of the poetical system in classical literature in spite of its trilingual nature. This fact prompts the student to approach classical literature in these languages as one unified system, setting aside ethnocentric approaches to classical literature that emerged considerably later in time and that are indeed incongruent with the very character of that literature. Musammat forms contribute profoundly to the continuity of literary tradition in “Oriental-Islamic languages”, functioning as a strong cohesive factor: the poetic continuity of these forms is observable from antique Arabian qasidas to the literary output in Ottoman language in which most of them were in fact composed. From the viewpoint of poetics, musammat forms represent the culminating point of the inherent inclination of this literary tradition towards form itself, which traditionally was dominant over subject-matter. Moreover, musammat forms went so far in that direction that form, rather than subject-matter, became principal poetic inspiration (e.g. tahmis, nazira, masnavi). Ultimately form is transformed into the hero of the tradition and the relationship governing form and its subject-matter was liberal to the point that any subject-matter could be encompassed by and expressed in any given form and in so doing literary tradition becomes double lyrical. On one hand, lyrical genres dominate the tradition, and on the other, exceptionally dynamic relation between different forms renders the tradition as a whole more dynamic and lyrical allowing for the complete surrender to the charms of forms and facilitating the exit of the libertine subject into the realm of forms. This poetical approach to classical literature, particularly in the study of musammat forms as one its dominant currents, demonstrate the fact that this literary tradition cannot be considered epigonic even though it may appear as such on the first impression. The tradition is characterized by its dynamic nature expressed in various elusive ways which reveal themselves only upon thorough poetical scrutiny. 

Ključne riječi

klasična književnost; liričnost tradicije; intertekstualnost; musammat; tahmis; nazira; classical literature; lyricality of tradition; intertextuality; musammat; tahmis

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