Odjeci kandijskog i morejskog rata u Bosni posmatrani kroz aktivnost bosanske feudalne porodice Filipovića iz Glamoča

Ibrahim Filipović


Osvrt na kretanje feudalne porodice Filipović u razdoblju kandijskog, bečkog i morejskog rata autor je načinio uz prethodan uvid u historijske prilike na prostoru koji su pripadnici ove porodice naseljavali. U funkciji ovakvog pristupa je i prikaz rodoslovnog stabla prva četiri naraštaja muslimanske porodice Filipović. Najizrazitiji pojedinac u trećem naraštaju ove porodice bio je Jusuf-alajbeg, učesnik mnogih akcija u vrijeme trajanja kandijskog rata i nosilac različitih visokih funkcija. Kroz opis njegova djelovanja date su prilike u Kliškom sandžaku i prostorima sa kojima je graničio, u trajanju duže od četiri decenije. U osvjetljavanju kretanja ovog i drugih pripadnika porodice Filipović, korišteni su različiti i raznovrsni izvori: službeni izvještaji i turski i mletački, memoarski spisi, prepiska, pa i narodna tradicija. Ratnička karijera Jusuf-alajbega je bila posebno pogodna, jer se ovaj istaknuti pojedinac porodice Filipović mnogo kretao i zapadao u različite situacije, o kojima je sačuvan jasan pisani trag. Tako se on našao u opsjednutom Klisu, zatim iz sužanjstva se oslobodio bijegom, a nakon niza uspjelih ratničkih pothvata - zapao je u zarobljeništvo i proveo u mletačkom zatočeništvu sedam godina, odakle je oslobođen razmjenom za oficira iz duždevske porodice, da bi konačno "od sablje" i poginuo. Jusuf-alajbeg jeste u centru pažnje autora, ali je kroz njegovo kretanje data slojevita i vrlo upečatljiva slika zbivanja na graničnim područjima osmanskog, mletačkog i austrijskog carstva u vrijeme kandijskog, bečkog i morejskog rata.


The echo of Candia and Morea wars in bosnia seen through tije activity of Bosnian feudal family Filipović from Glamoč

Rewiev on the feudal family Filipović during the period of Candia, Viennese and Morea Wars is made on the basis of the previous analysis of the historical circumstances in the area where the members of this feudal family lived during the Ottoman period (sanjaks of Krka and Klis). Description of the genealogy branch of the first four generation of the Moslem family Filipović is in the same function. The most prominent person in the third generation of this family was Yusuf-alaybey, the participant in many actions during the Candia War, and the bearer of various high functions. Through the description of his work the author also presents the circumstances in the sanjaks of Klis and Krka and in their border regions in over four decades period. Different and various sources are used in order to clear up the work of this and other members of the family Filipović: official reports of the sides in war, memoirs, correspondence and even folk tradition. Military career of Yusuf-alaybey was extreemly convenient for folk tradition, because this prominent member of the family Filipović moved a lot and got into various situations about which the written trace exists. War operations at the beginning of the Candia War found this Filipović as Klis' Alaybey in Knin with small garrison. He left it without fight and departed for Klis. In the middle of March 1645 General Foscolo attacked this fortress from three sides and besieged il completely. The siege lasted out a few days, because the garrison of Klis - inspite the presency of the considerable number of women, children and elder persons who came from Drniš, Knin and Vrlika - resisted the attackers courageously and cleverly. After several days of the exhaustive siege, negotiations started about the conditions of surrender. When the conditions were precised Venetians insisted that Turks give them certain hostages among whom was Yusuf-alaybey Filipović. However, while unarmed civil people were leaving the fortress a horrible bloodshed happened. The author here cites the historian Grga Novak: " ... a general attack began, unworthy of the soldiers, brutal treatment of men, women, taking away, undressing, killing. The massacre at the battlefield was not only the result of the cruelty of solidiers from Poljice and Morlacs but also the lust for plunder led the whole cavalry, hard and light, Italian infantry, as well as German, to take part in the massacre ... All the army competed in robbery and grabbing not only the material goods but also nice girls and boys. Over 250 men and women were killed in that chaos and about 200 were secretly taken to slavery. It was the disgrace which after the victory stained the honour of Venetian army and to which Venetians were very exasperated". Yusuf-alaybey was sent to Solin with all the other hostages, but hc escaped from there during the night, together with his escort. This made the Sanjakbey of Klis, Mehmedbey Mustajbegović to offer himself to General Foscolo in exchange for the escaped prisoner, what the General did accept.

After the fall of Klis Mustafa-pasha Tekelija was dismissed from his vizier's position, and to his place was appointed Dervish Mehmed-pasha. After taking on the duty, new Vizier started the war in which the soldiers from Poljice were punished for provoking the massacre while the civils were leaving the fortress of Klis. At the end of May 1649 Bosniaks under the command of Yusuf-alaybey Filipović attacked Morlacs in the vicinity of Šibenik. About 500 Morlacs were taken prisoners and the great number of cattle was confiscated in that fight. In the year 1650 Yusuf-alaybey conquered again the fortress of Knin and it was repaired under his supervision. In February, the same year, Morlacs from the vicinity of Šibenik attacked Bosniaks without warning near Bilaj and partially got revenge on them for the losses in the last year's fight. In December 2nd, 1652 Morlacs from Šibenik set an ambush to Yusuf-alaybey at the exit of Knin and enslaved him. As a ransom for Yusuf-alaybey they asked from his family a large ammount of money, military equipment, and also slaves and prisoners. They did not get the ransom, and so they were forced to deliver their precious prisoner to the Venetian authorities who put him into prisan in Verona. The data concerning the enslaving and Morlac's attempt to get the enormous ransom from the Turks for their prisoner the author obtained from the report of the Provincial Governor

(ital. provveditore) for Dalmatia. Some data about Yusuf-alaybey's living conditions during his seven year's

captivity can be found in the letters which he was writing to his family and which the author now found in the Archives of Venice, as well as in the letters which his relatives exchanged with !ulio Papali, the chaplain and also the agent of Venetian intelligence service, who was the mediator in their correspondence with Yusuf-alaybey. A chance for release Yusuf-alaybey from prison appeared after the nava! battle at Dardanelles where Turkish navy scored the victory and among their prisoners was the officer from the Venetian aristocratic family Morossini. The Sultan gave this prisoner to Yusufalaybey's wife as a gift, and after the negotiations it was performed the exchange of prisoners at the seashore near Šibenik. After his release from Venetian captivity Yusuf-alaybey continued to wage wars. In 1660 with the larger group of cavalrymen he attacked Šibenik. Staying with his army in the region of Dalmatia Yusuf-alaybey brake through the Klis' passage during the night, devastated the surroundings of Split and attacked all Kaštelas up to Trogir. Then he bypassed Trogir and set off for Šibenik, but he was revealed and Venetian forces - according to the chronicler Vinjalić - persecuted him all a way to the river Čikola. During that war year of 1660 he performed the duty of Serdar - the Army Commander, i.e. the representative of Bosnian Vizier, and the great Turkish writer of the travels Evlia Chelebi bore witness to this. In that time Yusuf-alaybey leaded a few war operations in the region of Šibenik in which mainly Morlacs were killed. In February 1661 Yusuf-alaybey leaded the campaign against Zadar, the result of which was a greater plunder of cattle. During the following years Yusuf-alaybey leaded the similar small operations and then at the end of winter 1669 he attacked Zadar again, but since his success was not complete he returned to Knin. In the border fights between Turkey and Venetia Yusuf-alaybey demonstrated his military skill and superiority in tactical maneuvers by conquering Drniš which, thanks to his initiative, stayed in Ottoman hands until Morea War. Yusuf-alaybey participated also in war campaign against Vienna, but the sources which could precisely clear up his part in this unsuccessful Turkish attempt to conquer Vienna were not preserved, apart from one report which stated that Filipović returned "wit!l a little army". In 1688 Provincial Governor Carnero set off with his army for Knin to conquere it. Wishing to prevent the supply of Venetian army from the direction of Drniš, Yusuf-alaybey with Selman-pasha from Herzegovina departed for Drniš to conquer it, but they felt into Venetian ambush. In the battles near the fortress of Drniš it was killed, among the others, the most prominent member of the family Filipović in the 17tb century, the Alaybey of Klis, Yusuf-bey Filipović. Numerous poems were written about his heroism, but unfortunately only few of them were preserved. The last Filipović who had his part in the events at Ottoman-Venetian border region in the 17tb century was Ali-bey Filipović. Namely, as the representative of the Ottoman side, he was the member of the commission who supervised the establishment of the borders of Bosnian Pashalik according to the regulations of Karlovac Peace Treaty, 1669. Muslim population in border regions, near Dalmatia and Lika, felt endangered after the end of Candia, Viennese and Morea Wars. The behaviour of Venetian authorities especially contributed to such feeling. They used Morlacs to devastate the feudal properties in Bosanska krajina (Bosnian border region), and also they drew Christian population in Bosnia closer to Venetian side, trying to get them into war operations as the advance guard for the fights against Turkish authorities. For that reason the masses of Muslim population were escaping from the border region to the internal parts of Bosnia. Venetian authorities settled the border region of Knin, as well as the other regions, with Christian families from Zmijanje, Glamoč, Grahovo and Krajina. The proof for this can be found in the report of Province Governor Alfier Molino, who stated that his "main task" was to attract the families from Bosnia to the territories from which Muslim population had left. As he said, he attracted them "by spreading rumors about gentle administration, about free land and about sending the Uskok's companies on the other, Turkish, side". This propaganda was successful and as a result of it the groups of 10, 20, 30 and more families were arriving leaded by their chiefs. The Governor of Knin and the Provincial Governor picked the villages in Kosovo and Petrovo polje to settle them there, and they were giving them some land as well. Molino's final report in Senat in 1692 stated that in Zmijanje 300 young couples who decides to emigrate got married in one day and departed for their new homes, while their parents, brothers and sisters stayed in old homes.

It is obvious that the members of the family Filipović were engaged in Lika and especially in Dalmatia. Their engagement was mainly of military character and it lasted over nine decades of the 17th century.

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