Džamije Banje Luke u planovima austrijskih ratnih karata iz XVIII stoljeća

Sabira Husedžinović

Sažetak

Sveukupnim stradanjima nastalim agresijom na Bosnu i Hercegovinu od 1992.-1995. godine, sasvim sigurno se mogu pribrojati i štete na kulturnoj baštini.

Granatiranjem i miniranjem brojnih džamija, crkava i samostana, biblioteka, sahat-kula, javnih i stambenih objekata, agresor je uništavao žiže vjerskog i nacionalnog života naroda. Samo na području Banje Luke od 9. IX do 15. XII 1993. godine porušeno je 15 džamija, 6 turbeta, 5 šadrvana, veliki broj harema i Sahat-kula.

Međutim, rušenje islamskih vjerskih objekata u Banjoj Luci počelo je znatno ranije. Poznato je da je Banja Luka sredinom XVI stoljeća postala sjedište Bosanskog sandžaka, a od 1580. i Bosanskog ejaleta, što joj je osiguralo brži urbani razvoj. Tako je u Banjoj Luci od XVI do XIX stoljeća nastalo 45 džamija i toliko mahala sa četiri čaršije na obalama Vrbasa. Posebno su se isticale svojom ljepotom i arhitektonskom osebujnošću Ferhadija (iz 1579.) i Amaudija džamija (iz 1595.).

Rušenje i uništavanje islamskih vjerskih objekata počinje već poslije poraza osmanske vojske pod Bečom (1683.) i Karlovačkog mira (1699.). To će se nastaviti 1737. godine, kada u vrijeme cara Karla VI Banju Luku opsjeda princ Hildburghausen. Priprema ove bitke (24. VII do 4. VIII) i napadi trupa Hildburghausena, raspored artiljerijskih baterija i sprava, kao i pontonskih mostova biće predmet crtanja brojnih inženjera austrijske vojske. Tako će nastati veliki broj planova Banje Luke, koji predstavljaju najstarije poznate kartografske predstave ovog grada.

Osim što ova dokumentacija ima taj značaj, ona pruža saznanja o urbanom razvoju Banje Luke i o značajnim objektima, posebno džamijama, koji su u bici bili izloženi granatiranju i rušenju. Posljedica ovih rušenja biće i promjena arhitektonskih rješenja ovih objekata.

Proučavanje historije urbanizma grada Banje Luke na ovim dokumentima je kompleksno i traži prije svega pravilno tumačenje svega onoga što ovi dokumenti posjeduju, uzimajući naravno okolnosti u kojima su nastajali i sa kojim ciljem.

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Mosques in Banja Luka on the blueprints of Austrian war maps from 18th century

The damage done to the cultural and historical heritage, can certainly be added to the overall picture of suffering and tribulation caused by aggression to Bosnia and Herzegovina 1992-1995.

Shelling and mining of numerous places of worship, mosques, churches and monasteries, libraries, clock-towers and public facilities and housing fund, the aggressor was destroying the nucleus of religious and national life of the population. Only in Banja Luka, betvveen September, 9th and December 15th, 1993, 15 mosques, 6 mausoleums, 5 fountains, large number of graveyards and clock-towers.

However, destruction of Islamic places of worship started even earlier. It is well known that Banja Luka became the Capital of Bosnian sanjak mid 16* century, and in 1580 the Capital of Bosnian eyalet, what guaranteed a faster urban development. From 16* to 19* century 45 mosques were built in Banja Luka together with as many accompanying settlement (mahala) and four marketplaces (čaršija) on the banks of Vrbas river. Especially beautiful were Ferhadija mosque (built in 1579) and Amaudija (in 1595).

Destruction of the Islamic religious facilities started immediately after the defeat of the Ottoman armada in Vienna (1683) and peace signed in Karlovac (1699), and continued in 1737, when, during the reign of emperor Charles the Sixth, Banja Luka was under siege by Prince Hildburghausen. Preparation of this battle (July 24* to August 4*) and attacks by Hildburghausen’s troops, arrangement of artillery, as well as pontoon bridges, will include đrawing many maps and plans by the engineers of Austrian army. That is how a large number of the oldest maps and dravvings of Banja Luka were produced.

Besides the fact that those were the oldest documents on Banja Luka of the kind, these maps are important proofs of urban development of early Banja Luka, especially the mosques that were exposed to destruction in the mentioned battle. This destruction lead to changes in architectural design of these facilities.

Studying of history of the city of Banja Luka according to these documents is very complex and requires correct interpretation of everything that these documents contain, having in mind the environment they were produced in and their original purpose.

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