Determinatori u ustroju turske atributne sintagme - (Kontrastivni osvrt)

Ekrem Čaušević

Sažetak

U radu se govori o sintaktičkom ustroju turske sintagme i linearnoj poziciji determinatora u odnosu na njezin upravni član. U neutralnome redu riječi determinatori se nižu prema semskome opsegu: prvu poziciju zauzima determinator s najvećim semskim opsegom, a zadnju onaj s najmanjim, npr. bu büyük, çirkin, beton apartmanlar = te velike, ružne, betonske zgrade. Zadnji determinator (beton) nalazi se neposredno ispred upravnoga člana sintagme (apartmanlar) i značenjski je istaknut budući da je u poziciji obavijesnoga predikata ili reme. Drugi po stupnju naglašenosti jest prvi u nizu od više determinatora (bu) jer je u poziciji obavijesnoga subjekta ili teme. U kontekstualno uključenom redu riječi semski opseg ne utječe na linearni redoslijed determinatora jer se odabirom pozicije (prve, druge, treće… itd.) postiže željeno značenje. Isti obavijesni ustroj ima i turska rečenica, u kojoj je tema uvijek u prednjem, a rema u zadnjem planu rečenice (pozicija ispred predikata). U radu se govori i o mogućnostima i ograničenjima aktualnoga raščlanjivanja turske atributne sintagme.

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Determiners in the Turkish attributive syntagm structure

This paper deals with the syntactic structure of the Turkish syntagm and the linear position of determiners in relation to its governing element. In a syntagm with neutral (syntactically unmarked) word order, the determiners are sequenced according to the semic scope: the first position is taken by a determiner with the highest level of semantic predication, while the last position is taken by a determiner with the one of lowest – e.g. bu büyük, çirkin, beton apartmanlar = those large, ugly, concrete buildings]. The last determiner (beton) is positioned immediately in front of the governing element of the syntagm (apartmanlar) and it is semantically emphasized, because it is in the position of the informative predicate or rheme. The second most focused element is the first in the line of several determiners (bu), because it is in the position of the informative subject or topic. In a syntagm with syntactically marked word order, the semic scope does not influence the linear order of the determiners because, through the choice of the position (first, second, third, etc.), the desired meaning is achieved. The Turkish sentence has the same informative structure, where the topic is always in the foreground, while the rheme is in the background of the sentence (the position before the predicate). The paper also addresses the possibilities and limitations of the current functional sentence perspective.

Ključne riječi

turski jezik; hrvatski/bosanski jezik; jezično kontrastiranje; sintaksa; atributna sintagma

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